Eyre Peninsula has been home to Aboriginal people for thousands of years, with the Nauo (south western Eyre), Barngarla (eastern Eyre), Wirangu (north western Eyre) and Mirning (far western Eyre) being the predominant original cultural groups present at the time of the arrival of Europeans (Tindale 1974 in DEH 2004a; SATC 1999).
During initial European contact the population of Aboriginal people on the peninsula is estimated to have been no more than about 2000 individuals (Berndt 1985 in Welz 2002).
The number of people in each language group varied, as did the size of the territory they occupied. In the northern parts of the State, tribal areas tended to be large and boundaries were not always well defined. Along the coast where water and food resources were more easily accessible, smaller tribal areas had loosely defined boundaries. All Aboriginal groups on Eyre Peninsula are known to have used a wide variety of native plant and animal (including fish) species for food and other resources.
Many sites of cultural significance are recorded under the State Heritage Register but there are many unrecorded sites of major significance to Aboriginal people.
The Indigenous Tourism Trail is an opportunity to experience and learn about Aboriginal culture and heritage. Stretching from Poonindie near Port Lincoln to the head of the Great Australian Bight, the trail provides, in either direction, a unique self-drive experience.